国际移民百科
【按照汉语拼音首字母顺序排序】
  • 被迫移民——因为强迫性因素而进行的移民,包括对自然和人为因素造成的对生命和生计的威胁。
    查看英文原文
    Forced migration - A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects).
  • 边境管理——促进包括商业人员、旅游者、移民和难民在内的人员在跨越边界的合法流动,发现和防止非本国公民非法进入某一特定国家。管理边界的措施包括实施签证规定,对运输公司将非法移民带上领土的行为实施制裁,并进行海上封锁。国际标准要求在促进合法旅客入境和防止旅客因不适当的理由或使用无效证件而进入的情况之间保持平衡。
    查看英文原文
    Border management - Facilitation of authorized flows of persons, including business people, tourists, migrants and refugees, across a border and the detection and prevention of irregular entry of non-nationals into a given country. Measures to manage borders include the imposition by States of visa requirements, carrier sanctions against transportation companies bringing irregular migrants to the territory, and interdiction at sea. International standards require a balancing between facilitating the entry of legitimate travellers and preventing that of travellers entering for inappropriate reasons or with invalid documentation.
  • 仇外——在国际层面,没有普遍接受的仇外的定义,但它可以被描述为基于相对于社区、社会或国家是外来者或者外国人的身份,拒绝,排斥,经常诋毁他人的态度、偏见和行为。种族主义和仇外之间有着密切的联系,这两个词很难区别开来。
    查看英文原文
    Xenophobia - At the international level, no universally accepted definition of xenophobia exists, though it can be described as attitudes, prejudices and behaviour that reject, exclude and often vilify persons, based on the perception that they are outsiders or foreigners to the community, society or national identity. There is a close link between racism and xenophobia, two terms that can be hard to differentiate from each other.
  • 重新定居——人民(难民、国内流离失所者等)迁移到另一个地理区域和环境,通常在第三个国家。在难民背景下,难民从他们寻求庇护的国家转移到另一个已同意接纳他们的国家。难民通常将获得庇护或其他形式的长期居留权,在许多情况下,将有机会入籍。
    查看英文原文
    Resettlement - The relocation and integration of people (refugees, internally displaced persons, etc.) into another geographical area and environment, usually in a third country. In the refugee context, the transfer of refugees from the country in which they have sought refuge to another State that has agreed to admit them. The refugees will usually be granted asylum or some other form of long-term resident rights and, in many cases, will have the opportunity to become naturalized.
  • 促进移民——通过使旅行更容易、更方便来促进或鼓励合法移民。这可能采取简化签证申请程序,或提高乘客检查程序的效率和人员素质的形式。
    查看英文原文
    Facilitated migration - Fostering or encouraging of regular migration by making travel easier and more convenient. This may take the form of a streamlined visa application process, or efficient and well-staffed passenger inspection procedures.
  • 贩卖人口——招聘、运输、转移、窝藏或接收人员,通过或威胁,或使用武力,或其他形式的强迫、绑架、诈骗、欺骗、滥用权力,或乘人之危,或给予或接受的支付或利益等手段,使一个人拥有控制另一个人的权力,目的是剥削。(Art. 3(a),《联合国预防、禁止和惩治贩运人口特别是妇女和儿童的议定书》,补充《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》,2000)。贩卖人口可以发生在一国边界内,也可能具有跨国性质。
    查看英文原文
    Trafficking in persons - "The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation" (Art. 3(a), UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000). Trafficking in persons can take place within the borders of one State or may have a transnational character.
  • 非正规移民——在出发国、过境国和接受国的监管规范之外发生的运动。没有明确的非正规移民定义。从目的国的角度看,这种非法现象是指入境、逗留或工作都是在没有移民条例规定的必要授权或文件的情况下进行的。从出发国的角度来看,是指在没有有效护照或旅行证件或不符合离开该国的行政要求的情况下,一个人越过国际边界的情况。然而,有一种倾向,限制将“非法移民”一词用于偷运移民和贩卖人口的案件。
    查看英文原文
    Irregular migration - Movement that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. There is no clear or universally accepted definition of irregular migration. From the perspective of destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a country without the necessary authorization or documents required under immigration regulations. From the perspective of the sending country, the irregularity is for example seen in cases in which a person crosses an international boundary without a valid passport or travel document or does not fulfil the administrative requirements for leaving the country. There is, however, a tendency to restrict the use of the term "illegal migration" to cases of smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons.
  • 国际最低标准——非本国国民受益于由国际公法直接决定的一组权利的原则,独立于国家内部确定的权利。一个国家必须遵守国际法关于非国民在领土上(或这些人的财产)的最低标准规定,(如拒绝司法、无理拖延或妨碍进入法院违反了国际法规定的国际最低标准)。在某些情况下,国际最低标准所保障的保护水平可能优于国家授予本国国民的标准。
    查看英文原文
    International minimum standards - The doctrine under which non-nationals benefit from a group of rights directly determined by public international law, independently of rights internally determined by the State in which the non-national finds him or herself. A State is required to observe minimum standards set by international law with respect to treatment of non-nationals present on its territory (or the property of such persons), (e.g. denial of justice, unwarranted delay or obstruction of access to courts are in breach of international minimum standards required by international law). In some cases, the level of protection guaranteed by the international minimum standard may be superior to that standard which the State grants its own nationals.
  • 国内流离失所者(IDP)——个人或团体被迫逃离或者离开家园或惯常居所,特别是为了避免武装冲突、普遍暴力、侵犯人权、自然或人为灾害的影响而产生的结果,但是没有越过一个国际公认的国家边界(《国内流离失所问题指导原则》,UN Doc E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2.)。请参阅事实上的难民、流离失所者、外部流离失所者、背井离乡者。
    查看英文原文
    Internally Displaced Person (IDP) - Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border (Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, UN Doc E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2.). See also de facto refugees, displaced person, externally displaced persons, uprooted people.
  • 技术合作——两个或多个行动者共享某一特定主题的信息和专门知识的协调行动,通常侧重于公共部门的职能(比如制定立法和程序,协助基础设施的设计和实施,或技术改进)。
    查看英文原文
    Technical cooperation - Coordinated action in which two or several actors share information and expertise on a given subject usually focused on public sector functions (e.g. development of legislation and procedures, assistance with the design and implementation of infrastructure, or technological enhancement).
  • 接收国——目的国或第三国。在返回或遣返的情况下,也就是原籍国。根据总统、部长或议会的决定每年接受一定数量的难民和移民的国家。
    查看英文原文
    Receiving country - Country of destination or a third country. In the case of return or repatriation, also the country of origin. Country that has accepted to receive a certain number of refugees and migrants on a yearly basis by presidential, ministerial or parliamentary decision.
  • 劳动力迁移——从一个国家到另一个国家,或在他们自己的国家内,为了就业而进行的人员流动。大多数国家都在移民法律中解决了劳动力迁移问题。此外,一些国家在规范劳动力向外移徙和并为本国侨民寻求机会方面发挥着积极作用。
    查看英文原文
    Labour migration - Movement of persons from one State to another, or within their own country of residence, for the purpose of employment. Labour migration is addressed by most States in their migration laws. In addition, some States take an active role in regulating outward labour migration and seeking opportunities for their nationals abroad.
  • 难民——一个人,“由于民族、宗教、国籍、加入特殊的社会群体或者拥有特殊的政治观点这些原因,有充分理由担心受到迫害,处于他的民族国家之外,不能或者由于这样的恐惧不愿意接受这个国家的保护”(Art. 1(A)(2), 《难民地位公约》, Art. 1A(2), 1951 1967协议修改版)。除了《1951难民公约》Art. 1(2)中的难民定义之外,1969年非洲统一组织(OAU)公约定义难民为任何人被迫离开自己的国家,“由于外来侵略,占领,外国统治或严重扰乱一部分或者全部的国家、民族的公共秩序的事件”。同样,1984年《卡塔赫纳宣言》指出,难民也包括逃离本国的人,“因为他们的生命、安全或自由受到普遍暴力、外国侵略、内部冲突、大规模人权侵犯或其他严重扰乱公共秩序的的威胁”。
    查看英文原文
    Refugee - A person who, "owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinions, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. (Art. 1(A)(2), Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Art. 1A(2), 1951 as modified by the 1967 Protocol). In addition to the refugee definition in the 1951 Refugee Convention, Art. 1(2), 1969 Organization of African Unity (OAU) Convention defines a refugee as any person compelled to leave his or her country "owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country or origin or nationality." Similarly, the 1984 Cartagena Declaration states that refugees also include persons who flee their country "because their lives, security or freedom have been threatened by generalised violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violations of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order."
  • 能力建设——通过增加知识和提高技能来建设政府和公民社会的能力。能力建设可采取与伙伴政府、培训机会,或在其他情况下促进有关当局制定的双边或多边对话发展议程的实质性直接项目设计和执行的形式。在所有情况下,能力建设的目标是建立普遍接受的管理实践基准。
    查看英文原文
    Capacity building - Building capacity of governments and civil society by increasing their knowledge and enhancing their skills. Capacity building can take the form of substantive direct project design and implementation with a partner government, training opportunities, or in other circumstances facilitation of a bilateral or multilateral agenda for dialogue development put in place by concerned authorities. In all cases, capacity building aims to build towards generally acceptable benchmarks of management practices.
  • 遣返——在各种国际文书(1949年《日内瓦公约》和1977年议定书,1907年第四次《海牙公约》的附件《陆战法规和惯例公约》,《人权文书》和《国际习惯法》)中规定的特定条件下,难民、战俘或民事拘留者返回其国籍国的个人权利。遣返的选择是针对个人而非拘留权的。在《国际武装冲突法》中,遣返还要求拘留权有释放合格的人(士兵和平民)的责任以及原籍国有在敌对行动结束时接受本国国民的义务。即使条约法不包含关于这一点的一般规则,但今天已欣然接受,有关各方已含蓄地同意遣返战俘和被拘留者。遣返也适用于国际危机期间外交使节和国际官员以及外籍人士和移民。
    查看英文原文
    Repatriation - The personal right of a refugee, prisoner of war or a civil detainee to return to his or her country of nationality under specific conditions laid down in various international instruments (Geneva Conventions, 1949 and Protocols, 1977, the Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Annexed to the Fourth Hague Convention, 1907, human rights instruments as well as customary international law). The option of repatriation is bestowed upon the individual personally and not upon the detaining power. In the law of international armed conflict, repatriation also entails the obligation of the detaining power to release eligible persons (soldiers and civilians) and the duty of the country of origin to receive its own nationals at the end of hostilities. Even if treaty law does not contain a general rule on this point, it is today readily accepted that the repatriation of prisoners of war and civil detainees has been consented to implicitly by the interested parties. Repatriation as a term also applies to diplomatic envoys and international officials in time of international crisis as well as expatriates and migrants.
  • 侨汇——被转移回原籍国的非国民获得或取得的款项。
    查看英文原文
    Remittances - Monies earned or acquired by non-nationals that are transferred back to their country of origin.
  • 人才流入——受过培训和有才能的个人移民到目的地国。也称为“逆向人才流失”。
    查看英文原文
    Brain gain - Immigration of trained and talented individuals into the destination country. Also called "reverse brain drain".
  • 人才流失——受过培训和有才能的人从原籍国移民到其他国家,导致前者的技能资源枯竭。
    查看英文原文
    Brain drain - Emigration of trained and talented individuals from the country of origin to another country resulting in a depletion of skills resources in the former.
  • 入籍——通过个人申请的正式行为,一个国家将其国籍授予非本国公民。国际法没有规定入籍的详细规则,但它承认每个国家有接收非国民入籍的权限。
    查看英文原文
    Naturalization - Granting by a State of its nationality to a non-national through a formal act on the application of the individual concerned. International law does not provide detailed rules for naturalization, but it recognizes the competence of every State to naturalize those who are not its nationals and who apply to become its nationals.
  • 同化——一个民族或者社会群体(通常是少数民族)对其他民族或者社会群体的适应。同化包括了语言、传统、价值观、道德和行为甚至根本的切身利益。虽然这个群体的传统文化习俗不太可能被完全抛弃,但在整个同化过程中,将会使一群人在社会上无法与社会其他成员区分开来。同化是文化适应的最极端形式。
    查看英文原文
    Assimilation - Adaptation of one ethnic or social group – usually a minority – to another. Assimilation involves the subsuming of language, traditions, values, mores and behaviour or even fundamental vital interests. Although the traditional cultural practices of the group are unlikely to be completely abandoned, on the whole assimilation will lead one group to be socially indistinguishable from other members of the society. Assimilation is the most extreme form of acculturation.
  • 推拉因素——移民经常被分析成“推拉模式”,它着眼于促使人们离开本国的推动因素(如经济、社会或政治问题)以及吸引他们到目的国的拉动因素。
    查看英文原文
    Push-pull factors - Migration is often analysed in terms of the "push-pull model", which looks at the push factors, which drive people to leave their country (such as economic, social, or political problems) and the pull factors attracting them to the country of destination.
  • 无国籍人——在任何国家的法律中都不被承认为国民的人(Art. 1,《联合国关于无国籍人地位的公约》1954)。因此,无国籍者由于缺乏受国家外交保护的权利,在其居住的国家内没有逗留的固有权利,如果他或她旅行,没有返回的权利。
    查看英文原文
    Stateless person - A person who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law" (Art. 1, UN Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1954). As such, a stateless person lacks those rights attributable to nationalidiplomatic protection of a State, no inherent right of sojourn in the State of residence and no right of return in case he or she travels.
  • 协助自愿返回——向被拒绝的寻求(政治)避难者、贩卖人口的受害者、滞留的移民、合格的国民和其他不能或不愿留在东道国且自愿返回原籍国的移民提供行政、后勤、财政和重返社会的支助。
    查看英文原文
    Assisted Voluntary Return - Administrative, logistical, financial and reintegration support to rejected asylum seekers, victims of trafficking in human beings, stranded migrants, qualified nationals and other migrants unable or unwilling to remain in the host country who volunteer to return to their countries of origin.
  • 寻求(政治)避难者——因为遭受迫害或者严重伤害而向本国以外其他国家寻求安全,并等待有关国际和国家文书确定难民地位的申请的人。如果作出否定的决定,除非在人道主义或其他相关方面提供逗留许可,此人必须离开该国,并可能被驱逐出境。
    查看英文原文
    Asylum seeker - A person who seeks safety from persecution or serious harm in a country other than his or her own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments. In case of a negative decision, the person must leave the country and may be expelled, as may any non-national in an irregular or unlawful situation, unless permission to stay is provided on humanitarian or other related grounds.
  • 循环移民——国与国之间的流动,包括临时或长期的运动。如果自愿地发生,并与原籍国和目的地的劳工需要相联系,这些活动可能有益于所有相关人员。
    查看英文原文
    Circular migration - The fluid movement of people between countries, including temporary or long-term movement which may be beneficial to all involved, if occurring voluntarily and linked to the labour needs of countries of origin and destination.
  • 移居——一个人或一群人的运动,无论是跨越国际边界,或在国家内部流动。这是一场人口运动,包括任何形式的人员流动,不论其时间长度、组成和原因;它包括难民、流离失所者、经济移民和为其他目的比如家庭团聚而移徙的人。
    查看英文原文
    Migration - The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, or within a State. It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants, and persons moving for other purposes, including family reunification.
  • 移民(移居外国)——从一个国家出发或离开以便在另一个国家定居的行为。
    查看英文原文
    Emigration - The act of departing or exiting from one State with a view to settling in another.
  • 移民(移入本国)——非国民为了定居而迁入一个国家的过程。
    查看英文原文
    Immigration - A process by which non-nationals move into a country for the purpose of settlement.
  • 移民管理——用于包括众多的政府职能的国家系统内的跨境迁移的有序和人性化的管理的一个术语,特别是管理外国人在国家边界内的入境和存在、对难民和其他需要保护的人的保护。它指的是为应对关键移民问题而制定政策、立法和行政的有计划的办法。
    查看英文原文
    Migration management - A term used to encompass numerous governmental functions within a national system for the orderly and humane management for cross-border migration, particularly managing the entry and presence of foreigners within the borders of the State and the protection of refugees and others in need of protection. It refers to a planned approach to the development of policy, legislative and administrative responses to key migration issues.
  • 有序迁移——一个人从他或她惯常居住地到一个新居住地的运动,符合原籍国、过境国和目的国或东道国出境和旅行的法律和条例。
    查看英文原文
    Orderly migration - The movement of a person from his or her usual place of residence to a new place of residence, in keeping with the laws and regulations governing exit of the country of origin and travel, transit and entry into the destination or host country.
  • 原籍国——流动人口来源国(合法或者不合法)。
    查看英文原文
    Country of origin - The country that is a source of migratory flows (regular or irregular).
  • 走私——“是为了直接或间接地获得一笔资金或其他物质利益的一种采购,这种利益从非国民或者非永久居民非法入境中得到”(Art. 3(a),《联合国反对通过陆地、海上和空中偷运移民的议定书》,补充了《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》,2000)。与贩卖人口相反,走私不需要剥削、强迫或侵犯人权。
    查看英文原文
    Smuggling - "The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a State Party of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident” (Art. 3(a), UN Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000). Smuggling, contrary to trafficking, does not require an element of exploitation, coercion, or violation of human rights.
词条来源:IOM, Glossary on Migration, International Migration Law Series No. 25, 2011